Weakening and lag of Islamic societies that had experienced great fluctuations and changes since the second half of 19th century is one of the main problems, which the thinkers of the periods are concerned with.
Weakening and lag of Islamic societies that had experienced great fluctuations and changes since the second half of 19th century is one of the main problems, which the thinkers of the periods are concerned with. Particularly Ottoman Empire’s entry into dissolution and destruction process made searches for salvation more rapid, and this led to revelation of and discussion on different opinions concerning the situation. While a climate of discontent giving birth to an imitation together with Western institutions is surrounding the whole Islamic world, corruption in the state governance, Western dominance in military and technical fields were shown as the reasons for regression. Popularization of positivist ideas after Tanzimat, which accelerated the process of imitation of the West in all aspects and resulted in deep changes in the cultural field, led to strengthening of the understanding that considers the religion as the source of regression. On the other hand, ulema’s agreement with some intellectuals on the consideration of religion as the source of regression brought about discussions finding reflections in different fields. In such an intellectual ground, harsh discussions on religion began. Questions as “Is religion prevents progress? How must the relation between Islam and modernism can be built?” tried to be answered.
Participated in this discussion process in late 19th century, Bediüzzaman Said Nursi suggested original solutions based on Koran and sunna to problems experienced by ISlamic societies. Considering “regression” as the enemy of Islam, Said Nursi analyzes reasons for Islamic societies’ regression in different aspects and shows ways out. With his determination that “Foreigners run down us under their despotism with the weapons of science and industry”, Bediüzzaman Said Nursi highlighted the ways to getr id of this pressure, and addressed diffferent areas in the way of progress. Seeing “material progress” as one of the musts of the time in this context, the most important objections of Bediüzzaman Said Nursi were against the positivist approaches concerning that religion makes us lag behind. Compared Western civilization with Koran civilization in his articles, Said Nursi stated that in case of obedience to Koran, real civilization will be experienced and material and spiritual progress will realize.
Expressed civilization’s beauty as the Muslims’ property, for Said Nursi, identification of progress with irreligion and regression with religion-Islam is an issue that must be overcome. In this framework, Hutbe-i Şamiye told by Bediüzzaman Said Nursi in 1911 in Damascus Emeviye Mosque in Arabic analyzes Islamic societies in all aspects. Interpreted socio-cultural and psychological condition of Islamic societies in a different manner than classical approaches, Hutbe-i Şamiye diagnoses the illnesses that lag Islamic societies behind and shows the ways of treatment. While searching the reasons of and remedies to the defeat against the West, Hutbe-i Şamiye not only addresses to the general needs of Muslim people that lived in the previous century, but also sheds a light for the next centuries and determines the future roadmap. Including ideas to contribute to world peace by emphasizing the concept of humane, Hutbe-i Şamiye can be considered as a manifest in the process of Islamic civilization’s recreation. Therefore, it is important to put the ideas in Hutbe-i Şamiye addressing Islamic world’s basic problems and solution ways in to Muslim’s agenda.
Based on these issues that we as Risale-i Nur Institute try to attract attention to, for the purpose of carrying Hutbe-i ŞAmiye to Muslim people’s agenda in its 100th year and discussing the ideas within the text, 6th Risale-i Nur Congress titled “Said Nursi’s Project of Islamic World: Hutbe-i Şamiye” that we held in Damascus between 19-20 March 2011 led to multiple notable results. With table discussions that can be considered as annotations to Hutbe-i Şamiye, many problems affecting the Islamic world and solution suggestions were discussed in the light of Bediüzzaman Said Nursi’s ideas. Coincided with the days, when freedom movements in Islamic world accelerated, the congress was like the messenger of the accrual of the ideas in Hutbe-i Şamiye.
We allocated this issue to the papers of 6th Risale-i Nur Congress. With the congress presentations that deal with all above issues, it was aimed at analyzing Hutbe-i Şamiye in all dimensions. While presenting to you the papers of 6th Risale-i Nur Congress titled Said Nursi’s Project of Islamic World: Hutbe-i Şamiye with the hope that we will see the happiness that Bediüzzaman gave the good news for a hundred years ago, we hope to be with you via our next issue on the same subject.
ABSTRACTS OF THE ARTİCLES
Hope in Bediüzzaman’s Thought
Prof. Dr. Doğu ERGİL
Hope is generally a different fact that ‘thinking positively’ used in psychology to transform the pessimism. ‘Fake hope’ is associated with a fantasy or a consequence that is almost impossible to realize. On the other hand, hope is holding the expectation and belief that a good and beneficial thing will realize and is the source of the feeling of trust. As one of the Islamic thinkers of our age, Bediüzzaman Said Nursi has a perspective that identifies hope with belief and considering it as a part of prayer. In this study, position of the concept of hope in Bediüzzaman’s thought is analyzed.
Keywords: Hope, fake hope, belief, fear, material progress
Lesson of Progress from Emevi Mosque
Hutbe-i Şamiye is one of the important and typical works of Bediüzzaman in ‘The First Said’ period. The work is full of effective, functional and concrete solution recommendations for the period’s problems. In this work, opinions in Hutbe-i Şamiye that connects ‘lag’ of Islamic societies compared to the Western ones to six illnesses and offers solution recommendations will be analyzed.
Keywords: Lagging, progress, material progress, despair, truth, law, Islamic unity, Islamic freedom
Analysis of “Hutbe-i Şamiye” in terms of Values Sociology
Assoc. Dr. Kadir CANATAN/Balıkesir University, Department of Sociology
Each culture and civilization is established based on different values. The difference between civilizations is the difference of values. A civilization is basically an embodiment of a series of certain values. It would be adequate to divide the values in the Muslim world into two categories as ‘Classical Values’ and ‘Modern values’. The ones within the first category are those that were valid in the traditional period and based more on an Islamic background. As from 19th century, modern values from the West and in particular based on the principles of French Revolution have been felt. In this study; Hutbe-i Şamiye, which is a social and Islamic statement analyzing structural problems of Islamic world and offering solutions in these issues is elaborated in the framework of sociology of values.
Keywords: Values, norms, classical values, modern values, culture, civilization, society
Ethics and Politics
Prof. Dr. Ejder OKUMUŞ/Osmangazi University, Faculty of Theology, Department of Philosophy and Religion
As there is an inseparable relation between ethics and politics, it is possible to talk about an ethics of politics and an ethics of the state. If the individuals living in a society are responsible to each other and the state is to individuals and society, then it cannot be thought that there is no ethics of politics or an ethics of state. In this article, in the framework of the interaction between politics and ethics, it is tried to deal with the issues of honesty, not saying lies and instrumentalization of religion as a basic value in the society’s socio-cultural life in its relation with the politics. In this study, importance of ethics in politics is analyzed in the context of honesty and religion. In this analysis, instrumentalization of religion by politicians is elaborated in terms of ethics of politics and in particular honesty; and it is tried to determine whether such instrumentalization of religion means ‘abusing religion for politics’, which is not right in terms of ethics of politics and which is a sort of misappropriation of religion.
Keywords: Religion, politics, ethics, ethics of politics, honesty, legitimacy, legitimacy of religion, abuse of religion
Age of Ownership and Liberty
Dr. Cemil ERTEM/İstanbul University
Bediüzzaman’s determination of post-capitalist period as the age of ownership and liberty is a very important one concerning the course of history. Capitalism could not bring a real ownership of liberty to the individual. The concept of ownership, when used with the concept of liberty as in Bediüzzaman, opens us the doors of a new economy and a new world actually and symbolically. Here, ownership refers to both an economic order, where monopolistic nation-state that gives birth to and protects monopolies is not economically dominant and person’s knowing the whole universe by turning her face to Allah. Such a knowing is a equilibrium. Based on the assumption that this equilibrium is in fact inherent to the universe economically, this article deals with Walras’ ‘General Equilibrium’ model, and analyzes Bediüzzaman’s historical determinations regarding the future in this context.
Keywords: Economy, capitalism, ownership, liberty, general equilibrium model, needs, livelihood, justice, interest, Islamic economy, capital, market, monopoly, state.
In the Light of Hutbe-i Şâmiyye: “Ensuring Brotherhood Again”
Prof. Dr. Ramazan ALTINTAŞ/Selçuk University, Faculty of Theology
In the current century, while the whole Western world is in the process of “becoming a religious community”, in the Islamic world, the same imperialist West produces artificial separatist problems in the contexts of ethnicity and sect. Despite all these, it is useful to reproduce our tradition of ensuring brotherhood, friendship and unity among the Muslim people. In this issue, application of “brotherhood” project by Resul-i Ekrem both during Islam’s Mecca and Medina periods can be a way out and method for us. Another good example of the same in our common history is the sermon Bediüzzamân Saîd-i Nursî gave in Emeviyye Mosque, which is called “el-Hutbetü’ş-Şâmiyye”. As it is known, in this sermon, situation of Islamic community and solution ways were clearly depicted. It is very meaningful that S. Nursî’s in his speech frequently used the expressions “You, my brothers in this Câmi’-i Emevî”, “You, my brothers in the heart of Islam’s great mosque!”. In this text titled “In the Light of Hutbe-i Şâmiyye: Ensuring Brotherhood Again”, current situation of the Islamic world and solution ways will be emphasized.
Keywords: Ensuring Brotherhood Again, Islamic World, Islamic Unity, Ethnical and Sect Separation, Other, Othering.
Call for Brotherhood Rising from Damascus
Asst. Assoc. Dr. Veysel KASAR/Harran University, Faculty of Theology
Hutbe-i Şamiye was told by Said Nursi in a period, when Islamic brotherhood was divided and Ottoman lands and Muslim countries were taken over by imperialist states one by one. For him, Islamic brotherhood possesses the power to connect the globes to each other. Belief and Islam, as the reasons for the brotherhood are worth to be honored as Kaaba. The reasons damaging Islamic brotherhood are worthless things such as pebbles. In his work, Said Nursi explains the issues to keep the community in unity against the imperialists, to enablem them to protect their material-spiritual rights, and invites the community to be brothers again in the framework of the terms of Koran.
Keywords: Brotherhood, hostility, belief, love, honor, monopolism, prejudice
Freedom-Belief Relation in Said Nursi
Assoc. Dr. Levent BİLGİ/Harran University
For Said Nursi, in the basis of freedom lies belief. For him, freedom is a gift from Allah, the Compassionate. Because freedom is a characteristic of belief. In this sense, we can say that understandings of freedom show differences in the context that whether one believes in a creator. For someone that cut her link to the creator, freedom is the ability do anything unless it gives harm to another one, while for someone, who did not cut her link to the creator, it is the situation of ability to anything without giving harm to herself and the others. In this study, freedom-belief relation is analyzed in the light of Said Nursi’s ideas.
Keywords: Freedom, freedom in Islamic law, belief, rightful share, domination, tyranny
“Hutbe-i Şamiye” and Understanding of Freedom in Islam
Dr. Recep ARDOĞAN
Not only nothing in the universe is meaningless, but also the rights and freedoms granted to human and responsibilities imposed on them by the Divine will and Sacred blessing are not without reason. Like there is reason, order and meaning in the non-physical capabilities granted to human, there can be no unnecessary and meaningless element in the intellectual rights and freedoms granted to him as immaterial facilities. Therefore, denial of a person’s innate right means denial of one of the secrets of the dominant reason. In this sense, if an aspect, a feature or a right of human existence is ignored, what is really ignored is the question “Why such a quality is given to human?”. Person’s awareness of his rights and freedoms, use them as required and obey to the other’s rights means observation of the divine art and reason in himself and the others.
In this article, what is told in hutbe-i şamiye on freedom will be tried to be annotated; definition of freedom, its importance in human rights; its relation to the concepts of equality and right, to ethics and law shall be discussed in the Islamic perspective and different understandings of freedom will be evaluated.
Keywords: Freedom, right, human rights, equality, ethics, public will, law, affair
On Advancement and Recession of Ottoman People in Positive Science
Prof. Dr. Ali BAKKAL/Harran University
The subject of the sermon Bediüzzaman gave in 1911 in Damascus Emeviye Mosque was while Europeans continue to advance and run towards the future, our remaining in the Middle Age materially. Bediüzzaman tries to reveal psycho-social reasons for our such drawing back in his aforementioned sermon, and suggests some ways to overcome such obstacles. In this study, background of the reasons Bediüzzaman mentioned in his sermon are discussed in the framework of the Ottoman development in positive sciences.
Keywords: Positive sciences, reasons for recession, progress, linguistics, phylosophy, corruption of madrasas